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China-Russia Joint Statement On ‘New Era’, Marks 75th Anniversary Of Relations

Above photo: The presidents of China and Russia, Xi Jinping and Vladimir Putin, sign a joint statement in Beijing on May 16, 2024.

The presidents of China and Russia, Xi Jinping and Vladimir Putin, signed a joint statement in Beijing in 2024.

This is an unofficial English translation of the full text of the historic document, marking a “new era” on the 75th anniversary of relations.

Russia’s President Vladimir Putin traveled to China from May 16-17, 2024, where he met with Chinese President Xi Jinping.

This was the 43rd meeting between the two leaders, although it held particular significance as it marked the 75th anniversary of the relations between their countries.

While in Beijing, Xi and Putin signed a lengthy joint statement, which when translated into English amounts to roughly 8000 words.

The document is available in Chinese and Russian on the websites of the respective governments.

As of May 25, there is no official translation of the full text in English. Only short excerpts of the statement have been reported on in the English-language media.

Geopolitical Economy Report asked several Chinese journalists and academics if there will be an official English translation, but they did not know, and some said they do not expect one to be published.

Given the importance of the joint statement, Geopolitical Economy Report has decided to publish a machine translation below, for educational purposes.

NOTE: The following is an unofficial translation using computer software and artificial intelligence, with some manual input. There may be errors. If an official translation of the full text is made available, this will be updated.

Joint Statement Between The People’s Republic Of China And The Russian Federation On Deepening The Comprehensive Strategic Partnership Of Coordination For A New Era On The Occasion Of The 75th Anniversary Of The Establishment Of Diplomatic Relations Between The Two Countries

May 16, 2024

At the invitation of President Xi Jinping of the People’s Republic of China, President Vladimir Putin of the Russian Federation conducted a state visit to the People’s Republic of China from May 16 to 17, 2024. The two heads of state held formal talks in Beijing and jointly attended the opening ceremony of the China-Russia Year of Culture 2024-2025 and a special concert commemorating the 75th anniversary of the establishment of China-Russia diplomatic relations. Premier Li Qiang of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China also met with President Putin of Russia.

President Putin of Russia also traveled to Harbin to attend the opening ceremony of the 8th China-Russia Expo.

The People’s Republic of China and the Russian Federation (hereinafter referred to as “the two sides”) declare as follows:


In 2024, China and Russia will grandly celebrate the 75th anniversary of their diplomatic relations. Over the past 75 years, China-Russia relations have experienced an extraordinary development journey. The Soviet Union was the first country in the world to recognize and establish diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the People’s Republic of China recognized the Russian Federation as the legitimate successor state of the Soviet Union and reiterated its willingness to develop China-Russia relations on the basis of equality, mutual respect, and mutually beneficial cooperation. The Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation between the People’s Republic of China and the Russian Federation, signed on July 16, 2001, laid a solid foundation for continuously and comprehensively strengthening China-Russia relations. The status of bilateral relations has been continuously upgraded, reaching the highest level in history as a comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination for the new era. Through the unremitting efforts of both sides, China-Russia relations, guided by the national interests of both countries and adhering to the spirit of permanent good-neighborliness and friendship, have maintained healthy and stable development.

Both sides pointed out that current China-Russia relations transcend the military-political alliance model of the Cold War era, characterized by non-alignment, non-confrontation, and non-targeting of third countries. Facing a turbulent and changing world order, China-Russia relations have withstood the test of international vicissitudes, demonstrating stability and resilience, and are now at their best level in history. Both sides emphasized that developing a comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination for the new era between China and Russia serves the fundamental interests of both countries and their peoples. This partnership is not a temporary measure, is not influenced by external factors, and has strong intrinsic motivation and independent value. Both sides firmly defend their legitimate rights and interests, oppose any attempts to obstruct the normal development of China-Russia relations, interfere in the internal affairs of both countries, or restrict the economic, technological, and international space of the two countries.

Both sides reaffirmed that China and Russia always regard each other as priority partners, consistently uphold mutual respect, treat each other as equals, and pursue mutually beneficial cooperation. They always adhere to the United Nations Charter, international law, and the basic principles of international relations, making their relationship a model of major countries and neighboring states in today’s world. Both sides are willing to further deepen comprehensive strategic coordination, firmly support each other on issues concerning their core interests such as sovereignty, territorial integrity, security, and development, effectively leverage their respective advantages, focus on safeguarding their national security and stability, and promote development and revitalization. Both sides will follow the principles set out in the Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation signed on July 16, 2001, as well as other bilateral documents and statements, to conduct high-quality, high-level mutually beneficial cooperation in various fields.

China welcomed the successful presidential election held in the Russian Federation in March 2024, recognizing that the election was well-organized, open, objective, and inclusive. The results fully demonstrate the broad support for the national policies pursued by the Russian government, and the development of friendly relations with the People’s Republic of China is an important part of Russia’s foreign policy.

China strongly condemned all organizers, perpetrators, and planners of the inhumane terrorist attack in Moscow Oblast on March 22, 2024, considering attacks on civilians completely unacceptable, and supports Russia’s resolute efforts to combat terrorism and extremism, maintaining national peace and stability.

Russia reaffirmed its adherence to the One China principle, recognizing Taiwan as an inalienable part of the People’s Republic of China, opposing any form of “Taiwan independence,” and firmly supporting China’s efforts to safeguard national sovereignty and territorial integrity and achieve national reunification. China supports Russia in maintaining its national security and stability, development and prosperity, sovereignty, and territorial integrity, opposing external forces’ interference in Russia’s internal affairs.

Both sides pointed out that the accelerating evolution of the world’s major changes and the rising status and strength of emerging powers in the “Global South” are rapidly becoming apparent. These objective factors accelerate the redistribution of development potential, resources, and opportunities, favoring emerging markets and developing countries, and promoting the democratization of international relations and international fairness and justice. In contrast, countries adhering to hegemonism and power politics are going against this trend, attempting to replace and subvert the recognized international order based on international law with a “rules-based order.” Both sides emphasized that China’s concept of building a community with a shared future for mankind and a series of global initiatives have significant positive implications.

As independent forces in the process of building a multipolar world, China and Russia will fully tap the potential of their bilateral relations, promoting the realization of an equitable and orderly multipolar world and the democratization of international relations, and unite to build a just and reasonable multipolar world.

Both sides believe that all countries have the right to independently choose their development models and political, economic, and social systems based on their national conditions and people’s will, opposing interference in the internal affairs of sovereign countries, unilateral sanctions without international law basis or UN Security Council authorization, and “long-arm jurisdiction.” Both sides pointed out that neocolonialism and hegemonism completely contradict the current trend of the times, calling for equal dialogue, development of partnership relations, and promotion of civilizational exchanges and mutual learning.

Both sides will continue to firmly defend the outcomes of World War II and the post-war world order enshrined in the UN Charter, opposing any denial, distortion, or tampering with the history of World War II. Both sides pointed out the necessity of proper historical education, protecting world anti-fascist memorial facilities from desecration or destruction, and strongly condemning the glorification or attempts to revive Nazism and militarism. Both sides plan to grandly celebrate the 80th anniversary of the victories in the Chinese People’s War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression and the Soviet Union’s Great Patriotic War in 2025, jointly promoting a correct view of World War II history.


Both sides will take the lead through head-of-state diplomacy to promote the all-round development of the China-Russia Comprehensive Strategic Partnership of Coordination for the New Era. Both sides will fully implement the important consensus reached by the two heads of state, continue to maintain close high-level exchanges, ensure the smooth operation of government, local, and civil exchange mechanisms, and actively explore the creation of new channels for cooperation.

Both sides will continue to engage in exchanges between leaders of their legislative bodies, deepen cooperation between the parliamentary cooperation committees, joint working groups, special committees, and parliamentary friendship groups of the two countries, maintain exchanges and cooperation between the General Office of the CPC Central Committee and the Office of the President of the Russian Federation, conduct trust-building dialogues within the framework of strategic security consultations and law enforcement security cooperation mechanisms, and promote exchanges between political parties, civil societies, and academic circles in both countries.

Both sides are pleased to note that defense cooperation between the two countries is steadily advancing based on high-level strategic mutual trust, effectively safeguarding regional and global security. Both sides will further deepen military mutual trust and cooperation, expand the scale of joint training and exercises, regularly organize joint maritime and air patrols, strengthen coordination and cooperation within bilateral and multilateral frameworks, and continuously improve their capabilities and levels in jointly responding to risks and challenges.

Both sides attach great importance to cooperation in law enforcement and security, and are willing to strengthen cooperation in combating terrorism, separatism, extremism, and transnational organized crime within bilateral frameworks as well as under the United Nations, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, BRICS, and other frameworks. Both sides are committed to strengthening border area cooperation between the law enforcement departments of the two countries.

Both sides pointed out that using multilateral or national judiciary, or providing assistance to foreign judicial institutions or multilateral legal mechanisms to interfere in the sovereign affairs of countries is unacceptable. They expressed deep concern over the increasing politicization of international criminal justice and violations of human rights and sovereign immunity. Both sides believe that any actions taken by any country or group of this nature are illegal, violate recognized principles of international law, and will harm the international community’s ability to combat crime.

Both sides believe that according to the basic principles of international law on the sovereign equality of states, the relevant international obligations regarding the immunity of states and their property (including sovereign reserves) must be strictly observed. Both sides condemn attempts to confiscate foreign assets and property, emphasizing that affected countries have the right to take countermeasures in accordance with international law. Both sides are determined to protect each other’s national property within their own countries and ensure the safety, inviolability, and timely return of the other country’s property temporarily brought into their own country.

Both sides plan to improve the mechanisms for the recognition and enforcement of legal judgments stipulated in the Treaty between the People’s Republic of China and the Russian Federation on Mutual Legal Assistance in Civil and Criminal Matters, signed on June 19, 1992.

Both sides will continue to strengthen practical cooperation in the field of emergency management, engage in cooperation in disaster prevention, mitigation, and relief, and safety production in areas such as space monitoring and aviation rescue technology, and organize joint rescue exercises and training sessions.


Both sides believe that practical cooperation between China and Russia is a crucial factor in promoting the economic and social development and common prosperity of both countries, ensuring technological progress and national economic sovereignty, achieving national modernization, enhancing the well-being of the people, and maintaining the stability and sustainability of the world economy. Both sides are willing to promote inclusive economic globalization. Both sides are pleased to see that practical cooperation in various fields between China and Russia continues to advance and achieve positive results. Both sides are willing to continue deepening cooperation in all fields based on the principle of mutual benefit and win-win results, closely coordinate to jointly overcome external challenges and adverse factors, improve the efficiency of cooperation, and achieve stable and high-quality development of cooperation. To this end, the two sides agreed:

– According to the “Joint Statement by the President of the People’s Republic of China and the President of the Russian Federation on the Development Plan for Key Directions of China-Russia Economic Cooperation until 2030,” vigorously promote high-quality development in all fields of cooperation.

– Continuously expand the scale of bilateral trade, optimize trade structure, deepen cooperation in service trade, e-commerce, digital economy, and sustainable development, and jointly maintain the stability and security of industrial and supply chains.

– Welcome the 8th China-Russia Expo in Harbin, China, and support representatives from various sectors in both countries to participate in important forums and exhibitions held in both countries.

– Continuously improve the level of investment cooperation between the two countries, jointly promote the implementation of major cooperation projects, protect investors’ rights and interests, and create fair and just conditions for investment. Actively utilize the investment field coordination mechanisms between the two countries. Upgrade the “Agreement between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of the Russian Federation on the Promotion and Mutual Protection of Investments” as soon as possible.

– Accelerate the formulation and approval of the new “China-Russia Investment Cooperation Planning Outline” in 2024, fully promote the implementation of the Outline, and enhance the effectiveness of bilateral investment cooperation.

– Continuously consolidate China-Russia strategic energy cooperation and achieve high-level development, ensuring the economic and energy security of both countries. Strive to ensure the stability and sustainability of the international energy market, and maintain the stability and resilience of the global energy industry and supply chains. Conduct cooperation in areas such as oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, coal, and electricity based on market principles, ensure the stable operation of relevant cross-border infrastructure, and ensure smooth energy transportation. Jointly promote the implementation of large-scale energy projects by Chinese and Russian enterprises, and deepen cooperation in prospective areas such as renewable energy, hydrogen energy, and carbon markets.

– Based on successful and ongoing project experiences, deepen cooperation in the field of civil nuclear energy according to the principles of mutual benefit and balanced interests, including thermonuclear fusion, fast neutron reactors, and closed nuclear fuel cycles, and explore package cooperation on the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle and joint construction of nuclear power plants.

– Increase the share of local currencies in bilateral trade, financing, and other economic activities. Improve the financial infrastructure of both countries, and facilitate settlement channels between business entities in both countries. Strengthen regulatory cooperation in the banking and insurance sectors of China and Russia, promote the sound development of banks and insurance institutions established in each other’s countries, encourage two-way investment, and issue bonds in each other’s financial markets under market principles. Support further cooperation in insurance, reinsurance, and enhancing payment convenience, and create favorable conditions for the growth of tourist numbers in both directions. Actively promote mutually beneficial cooperation in practical areas based on the equivalence and mutual recognition of Chinese and Russian accounting standards (in the field of bond issuance), auditing standards, and audit supervision.

– Conduct China-Russia financial intelligence cooperation, jointly prevent risks such as money laundering and terrorist financing, and continue to strengthen cooperation under the multilateral anti-money laundering framework.

– Enhance the level of cooperation in industrial and innovation fields, jointly develop advanced industries, and strengthen technical and production cooperation, including in civil aviation manufacturing, shipbuilding, automobile manufacturing, equipment manufacturing, electronics industry, metallurgy, iron ore mining, chemical industry, and forest industry. Create favorable conditions for the implementation of priority projects in prospective fields for both parties, expand trade in industrial products and increase their share in bilateral trade, and promote the modernization of the industries in both countries.

– Conduct mutually beneficial cooperation in the field of information and communication technology, including artificial intelligence, communications, software, the Internet of Things, open source, network and data security, video games, radio frequency coordination, vocational education, and professional scientific research.

– Consolidate the long-term partnership in the space field between the two sides, implement major national space program projects that align with the common interests of China and Russia, promote cooperation in the fields of lunar and deep space exploration, including the construction of the International Lunar Research Station, and strengthen the application cooperation of the Beidou and GLONASS satellite navigation systems.

– Unlock the enormous potential for cooperation in the agricultural sector, expand mutual market access for agricultural products of the two countries, increase the trade level of soybeans and their products, pork, aquatic products, grains, oils, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and other agricultural and food products. Deepen agricultural investment cooperation, and continue to study the establishment of China-Russia agricultural cooperation pilot demonstration zones in the Russian Far East and other regions.

– Deepen cooperation in transportation logistics and ports, build stable, smooth, and sustainable transportation and logistics corridors, and develop direct or transit transportation routes between the two countries. Simultaneously strengthen the construction of border port infrastructure, improve the standardized management of ports, enhance port inspection efficiency and customs clearance capabilities, and ensure smooth and stable two-way passenger and cargo flow. Improve the customs clearance capacity and transportation capacity of China-Europe freight trains transiting through Russia, and jointly ensure the safe and efficient transportation of goods. From the strategic significance of the China-Russia partnership, actively promote the development of air transport, encourage airlines of both countries to add more routes and flights in a standardized manner, covering more regions.

– Strengthen customs cooperation, focusing on promoting exchanges and cooperation on the international trade “single window” system, applying modern regulatory mechanisms and automated management processes, further facilitating trade exchanges, improving the transparency of import and export business, and effectively combating customs violations.

– Strengthen the exchange of experience and practical sharing in the protection and utilization of intellectual property, and fully utilize the important role of intellectual property in promoting technological innovation and economic and social development.

– Strengthen mutually beneficial cooperation in the field of competition policy, including cooperation in law enforcement and the protection of competition rules in commodity markets (including digital commodity markets), creating favorable conditions for bilateral economic and trade cooperation.

– Further promote cooperation in industry, infrastructure, housing, and urban development.

– Under the framework of the China-Russia Prime Ministers’ Regular Meeting Committee mechanism, establish a subcommittee on Arctic route cooperation to conduct mutually beneficial cooperation in Arctic development and utilization, protect the Arctic ecosystem, promote the Arctic route as an important international transport corridor, and encourage enterprises of both countries to strengthen cooperation in increasing Arctic route traffic volume and building Arctic route logistics infrastructure. Deepen cooperation in polar ship technology and construction.

– Actively support local and border cooperation, expand comprehensive exchanges between localities of the two countries. Under the preferential system framework of the Russian Far East, strengthen investment cooperation based on market and commercial principles, and conduct industrial and high-tech industry cooperative production. In accordance with the principles of good-neighborliness, friendship, and respect for national sovereignty, jointly develop Heixiazi Island (Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island). Accelerate consultations on the text of the “Intergovernmental Agreement on Navigation of Chinese and Russian Vessels in the Waters Surrounding Heixiazi Island (Tarabarov Island and Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island).” The two sides will conduct constructive dialogue with the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea on the matter of Chinese vessels navigating to the sea via the lower reaches of the Tumen River.

– Deepen environmental protection cooperation, strengthen cooperation in areas such as transboundary water body protection, emergency contact for environmental pollution, biodiversity protection, and solid waste treatment.

– Continue close cooperation to improve the environmental quality of the border areas between the two countries.

– Continue to strengthen cooperation, implement the “Agreement on Economic and Trade Cooperation between the People’s Republic of China and the Eurasian Economic Union” signed on May 17, 2018, promote the alignment of the “Belt and Road” initiative with the construction of the Eurasian Economic Union, and deepen comprehensive cooperation and connectivity in the Eurasian region.

– Continue to implement the consensus of the two heads of state on the parallel and coordinated development of the “Belt and Road” initiative and the “Greater Eurasian Partnership,” creating conditions for the independent and steady development of the economies and societies of Eurasian countries.

– Continue to conduct China-Russia-Mongolia trilateral cooperation according to the “China-Russia-Mongolia Trilateral Cooperation Mid-term Roadmap” and the “China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor Plan Outline” and other documents.


Both parties believe that cultural exchanges are of paramount importance in enhancing mutual understanding, promoting the tradition of good-neighborliness, perpetuating the longstanding friendship between the peoples of the two countries, and solidifying the social foundation of bilateral relations. The parties are willing to work together to actively expand cultural cooperation, improve the level of cooperation, and broaden the outcomes of such collaboration. To this end, the parties have agreed to:

– Continuously deepen educational cooperation and improve the legislative foundation. They will promote the expansion and enhancement of bilateral study programs, advance Chinese language teaching in Russia and Russian language teaching in China, encourage educational institutions to expand exchanges and cooperative education, conduct high-level talent joint training and collaborative research, support cooperation in basic research between universities, and support activities by alliances of similar universities and secondary schools, as well as cooperation in vocational and digital education.

– Deepen scientific and technological exchanges. They will leverage the potential for cooperation in basic and applied research, expand cooperation under the framework of major scientific facilities, support the establishment of modern laboratories and advanced research centers, maintain the initiative in the technological development of both countries, promote personnel exchanges, and conduct interdisciplinary climate change research.

– Fully utilize the opportunity presented by the 2024-2025 China-Russia Cultural Year to comprehensively engage in exchanges in the fields of performing arts, museums, libraries, cultural heritage protection, art education, and creative industries. They will broaden the regions involved in cultural exchanges, actively promote participation by local youth and cultural workers, continue hosting cultural festivals, library forums, and the China-Russia Cultural Fair, and encourage exploring new initiatives such as an “International Pop Song Contest.” The parties believe that the diversity and uniqueness of cultures and civilizations form the basis of a multipolar world. Based on this, they will conduct exchanges, cooperation, and mutual learning, oppose the politicization of culture, and reject discriminatory and exclusionary “civilizational superiority” theories. They oppose the practice of some countries and nations engaging in “cultural cancelation” and the destruction or removal of commemorative and religious facilities, and they will promote more countries’ recognition of traditional moral values.

– Engage in dialogue regarding the protection, research, restoration, and utilization of historical religious facilities, martyr memorials, and historical and cultural heritage.

– Promote cooperation in the film industry, including supporting the Russian side in establishing the Eurasian Film Academy and the “Open Eurasian Film Awards,” and actively consider submitting films for these awards.

– Continue advancing cooperation in healthcare fields such as disaster medicine, infectious diseases, oncology and nuclear medicine, ophthalmology, pharmacology, and maternal and child health. They will use advanced experiences in modern medical technology to promote high-level medical talent training.

– Conduct cooperation in infectious disease prevention and control, local and cross-border health fields, expand cooperation in biological disaster warning and response, maintain national sovereignty in the biological field, and place high importance on relevant cooperation in the border areas of China and Russia.

– Highly evaluate the achievements of the China-Russia Year of Sports Exchanges 2022-2023 and continue to pragmatically advance cooperation in the field of sports, deepening exchanges in various sports. The Chinese side highly values the Russian side’s hosting of the first “Future Games” in Kazan in 2024 and supports the hosting of the BRICS Games by the Russian side. The parties oppose the politicization of sports, reject the use of nationality, language, religion, politics, or other beliefs, race, and social origin as tools for discriminating against athletes, and call for equal international sports cooperation in accordance with the Olympic spirit and principles.

– Expand cooperation in tourism, create favorable conditions for increasing mutual visits by Chinese and Russian tourists, promote the development of cross-border tourism, and jointly implement the Agreement between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of the Russian Federation on Mutual Visa Exemption for Group Tourism signed on February 29, 2000, and expedite negotiations for its revision.

– Strengthen media exchanges between the two countries, promote mutual visits at all levels, support pragmatic professional dialogue, actively engage in high-quality content cooperation, explore the potential for cooperation in new media and new technologies in the field of mass media, objectively and comprehensively report on major global events, and disseminate truthful information in the international public opinion arena. They will continue to promote exchanges and cooperation between translation and publishing institutions of both countries, and support the mutual broadcasting of television channel programs.

– Support cooperation between archival departments, including exchanging advanced work experiences and archival information, jointly preparing archival publications, and implementing exhibition projects related to the history of China-Russia relations and the history of the two countries.

– Support the work of the China-Russia Friendship, Peace and Development Committee, encourage cooperation through friendship associations and other civil society groups, promote people-to-people exchanges and mutual understanding between China and Russia, and strengthen exchanges between experts and think tanks of the two countries.

– Strengthen cooperation in the field of youth, carry out education on ideals and beliefs, correct values, and patriotism, support youth innovation and entrepreneurship, volunteer services, and creativity enhancement. To consolidate and enrich the achievements of the World Festival of Youth and Students and the World Youth Development Forum, they will continue to deepen youth exchanges at all levels and collaborate on multilateral youth platforms to promote common international cooperation initiatives.


Both sides reaffirmed their commitment to building a more just and stable multipolar international architecture, fully respecting and abiding by the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter unconditionally, and safeguarding true multilateralism. Both sides emphasized that the work of the “Group of Friends to Defend the United Nations Charter” should be further strengthened.

The two sides are willing to deepen bilateral cooperation within the framework of the United Nations, including the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council, and should strengthen collaboration when discussing important international issues within various United Nations agencies.

The two sides are willing to continue to work together to promote constructive dialogue and cooperation among all parties in the field of multilateral human rights, advocate common values for all mankind, oppose the politicization of human rights, double standards and the use of human rights issues to interfere in other countries’ internal affairs, and jointly promote all aspects of the international human rights agenda. healthy growth.

To improve the health of all mankind, the two sides continue to collaborate closely on global health issues, including supporting the role of the World Health Organization and opposing the politicization of its work.

Both sides firmly promote an open, inclusive, transparent and non-discriminatory multilateral trading system based on the rules of the World Trade Organization. The two sides are willing to strengthen cooperation under the WTO framework, promote WTO reform including restoring the normal operation of the dispute settlement mechanism, and promote the implementation of the outcomes of the 13th WTO Ministerial Conference. Both sides oppose the politicization of international economic relations, including the work of multilateral organizations in the fields of trade, finance, energy and transportation, which will lead to global trade fragmentation, protectionism and vicious competition.

Both sides condemned unilateral actions that bypassed the United Nations Security Council, violated international laws such as the United Nations Charter, and eroded justice and conscience, as well as unilateral measures that violated WTO rules. Restrictive measures that violate WTO rules hinder the development of free trade and have a negative impact on global industrial and supply chains. China and Russia are firmly opposed to this.

In addition, both sides emphasized their willingness to strengthen collaboration on multilateral platforms in professional fields, promote common positions, and oppose the politicization of the work of international organizations.


Both sides believe that cooperation within the framework of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is an important direction to strengthen the comprehensive strategic partnership between the two countries. Both sides will continue to collaborate to make the SCO a more authoritative and influential multilateral organization, enabling it to play a greater role in building a new, just, and stable multipolar international order.

Both sides will cooperate with other member states of the SCO to improve the organization’s work, tap into the potential for cooperation in political, security, economic, and cultural fields, and make the Eurasian region a common home of peace, stability, mutual trust, and prosperity.

China fully supports Russia’s chairmanship of the BRICS Summit in 2024 and the successful hosting of the 16th BRICS Leaders’ Summit.

Both sides are willing to work with other BRICS member countries to implement the consensus reached at previous BRICS Leaders’ Summits, promote the integration of new members into existing BRICS cooperation mechanisms, and explore modes of cooperation among BRICS partner countries. They will continue to uphold the BRICS spirit, enhance the influence of the BRICS mechanism in international affairs and agenda-setting, actively engage in “BRICS+” cooperation, and dialogue with BRICS outreach partners.

Both sides will promote the enhancement of cooperation among BRICS countries on the international stage, including strengthening cooperation in trade, digital economy, and public health fields among BRICS countries, and effectively promoting dialogue on the use of local currencies, payment instruments, and platforms for BRICS trade transactions.

Both sides believe that the role of UNESCO as a universal platform for intergovernmental human exchange should be further strengthened, promoting professional dialogue based on mutual respect on this platform, facilitating efficient communication among member states, reaching consensus, and enhancing solidarity.

Both sides highly appreciate the constructive cooperation between China and Russia within the G20 and reaffirm their willingness to further strengthen cooperation under this mechanism. They will promote the construction of an inclusive global economy within this mechanism, take balanced and consensual actions to address prominent economic and financial challenges, promote the development of the global governance system towards greater justice, and enhance the representation of “global South” countries in the global economic governance system. Both sides welcome the African Union’s membership in the G20 and are willing to make constructive efforts for the common interests of emerging markets and developing countries.

Both sides will continue to engage in close and mutually beneficial cooperation within the framework of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), promote the comprehensive and balanced implementation of the Bogor Goals, and advance the building of an Asia-Pacific community. To this end, both sides are willing to further promote common principles, promote the construction of an open world economy, advance the process of Asia-Pacific regional economic integration, facilitate trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, ensure the stability and smooth operation of cross-border industrial and supply chains in the Asia-Pacific region, promote digital transformation, green transformation, and sustainable development in the Asia-Pacific region, and benefit the people of the region.

Russia highly appreciates the Global Development Initiative and will continue to participate in the work of the “Group of Friends of the Global Development Initiative.” Both sides will continue to focus the international community on development issues, increase development inputs, deepen pragmatic cooperation, and accelerate the implementation of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.


Both sides note that regional and global conflicts persist, and the international security environment is unstable. Escalating interstate confrontations, including among nuclear-weapon states, are increasing strategic risks. Both sides express concern about the international security situation.

Both sides reaffirm their commitment to the Joint Statement of the Leaders of the Five Nuclear-Weapon States on Preventing Nuclear War and Avoiding Arms Races, issued on January 3, 2022, especially the concept that nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought again. They call on all participating countries to effectively adhere to this statement.

Both sides believe that all nuclear-weapon states should adhere to the principles of maintaining global strategic stability, security, equality, and indivisibility. They should not expand military alliances and alliances or establish military bases near the borders of other nuclear-weapon states, especially by predeploying nuclear weapons, their delivery vehicles, and other strategic military facilities that infringe on each other’s vital interests. Comprehensive measures must be taken to prevent direct military confrontation between nuclear-weapon states, with a focus on eliminating the root causes of conflicts in the security domain.

China and Russia support the successful review process of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) while opposing attempts to politicize the NPT and its review process for purposes unrelated to the treaty’s content.

Both sides express serious concern once again about the United States’ attempts to disrupt strategic stability in order to maintain its absolute military advantage. This includes the construction of a global missile defense system and the deployment of missile defense systems around the world and in space, strengthening the capability of precision non-nuclear weapons to conduct military operations and “decapitation” strikes, enhancing NATO’s “nuclear sharing” arrangements in Europe and providing “extended deterrence” to individual allies, building infrastructure in Australia, a signatory to the South Pacific Nuclear-Free Zone Treaty, that could be used to support actions by US and UK nuclear forces, conducting nuclear submarine cooperation between the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, and planning to deploy and provide land-based intermediate-range missiles to allies in the Asia-Pacific and European regions.

The United States, under the pretext of conducting joint exercises with its allies, specifically targeting China and Russia, has begun to take action to deploy ground-based intermediate-range missile systems in the Asia-Pacific region. Both sides express serious concern about this. The US claims that it will continue to promote the above practices and eventually normalize the deployment of missiles worldwide. Both sides strongly condemn these extremely destabilizing measures that directly threaten China and Russia’s security and will strengthen coordination and cooperation to address the US’ non-constructive and hostile policy of so-called “dual containment” against China and Russia.

Both sides reaffirm that the Chemical Weapons Convention should be fully complied with and continuously strengthened, institutionalized, and achieve an agreement with an effective verification mechanism and legal binding force. They demand that the United States refrain from engaging in any biological military activities that threaten the security of other countries and regions, both domestically and abroad.

Both sides oppose attempts by individual countries to militarize outer space, oppose security policies and activities aimed at gaining military superiority and defining outer space as a “combat domain.” They advocate initiating negotiations for a legally binding multilateral instrument as soon as possible based on the draft Treaty on the Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space, the Threat or Use of Force Against Outer Space Objects (PPWT), to provide fundamental and reliable guarantees to prevent an arms race in outer space, prevent the weaponization of outer space, and prevent the threat or use of force against outer space objects or through outer space objects. To maintain world peace, ensure the equal and indivisible security of all countries, and enhance the predictability and sustainability of exploring and using outer space, both sides agree to promote the international initiative/political commitment not to deploy weapons first in outer space on a global scale.

Both sides are committed to achieving the goal of a world free of chemical weapons and express deep concern about the politicization of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). Both sides point out that the Chemical Weapons Convention, as an important mechanism in the disarmament and non-proliferation field, should be fully complied with. They urge Japan to fully, completely, and accurately implement the Destruction Plan for Abandoned Chemical Weapons in the People’s Republic of China after 2022 and promptly destroy the abandoned chemical weapons in China.

Both sides will continue to coordinate their actions on chemical disarmament and non-proliferation issues, striving to restore the authority of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and return its work to a technical track free from politicalization.

Both sides reaffirm their obligations to comply with the export control obligations of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the Biological Weapons Convention, and the Chemical Weapons Convention, oppose replacing the original intention of non-proliferation with hypocritical political purposes, and prevent the politicization and militarization of non-proliferation export controls, serving their short-term interests and implementing illegal unilateral restrictive measures.

Both sides reaffirm their commitment to promoting the comprehensive and effective implementation of UN General Assembly resolution “Advancing Responsible State Behavior in Cyberspace in the Context of International Security”.

Both sides are willing to deepen cooperation in combating international terrorism and extremism, adopting a “zero tolerance” attitude towards “three forces” including the “East Turkistan Islamic Movement” (ETIM); they are also willing to further strengthen cooperation in combating transnational organized crime, corruption, illegal drug trafficking, psychotropic drugs, and their precursors, and jointly respond to other new challenges and threats.

Both sides attach great importance to the issue of artificial intelligence and are willing to strengthen exchanges and cooperation on the development, security, and governance of artificial intelligence. Russia welcomes China’s proposal for the “Global Initiative on Data Security”, and China welcomes Russia’s proposal for governance guidelines on artificial intelligence. Both sides agree to establish and make good use of a regular consultation mechanism to enhance cooperation in artificial intelligence and open-source technology. They will coordinate their positions when discussing regulatory issues related to artificial intelligence on international platforms and support each other in hosting international conferences on artificial intelligence.

Both sides reaffirm their consistent position on ensuring security in the field of information and communication technology (ICT), agreeing to collaborate to address various cybersecurity risks, including those related to artificial intelligence. They encourage global efforts to promote the healthy development of artificial intelligence, share the dividends of artificial intelligence, strengthen international cooperation in building artificial intelligence capabilities, properly address the issue of military applications of artificial intelligence, and support exchanges and cooperation on artificial intelligence in mechanisms such as the United Nations, the International Telecommunication Union, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and the International Organization for Standardization. They oppose the use of technology monopolies and unilateral coercive measures to maliciously obstruct the development of artificial intelligence in other countries and disrupt the global artificial intelligence supply chain.

Both sides recognize the leading role of the United Nations in formulating common rules in the international field of information security, support the UN Open-Ended Working Group on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security (OEWG) as an irreplaceable global negotiation platform in this field, and conduct regular work. They point out that new responsible state behavior norms should be formulated in cyberspace, especially universal legal instruments, to lay the foundation for establishing international legal arbitration mechanisms aimed at preventing interstate conflicts in cyberspace, conducive to building a peaceful, open, secure, stable, interconnected, and accessible ICT


Both sides, in response to climate change, reaffirm their commitment to the objectives, principles, and institutional framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Paris Agreement, especially the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. They emphasize the crucial importance of financial support from developed countries to developing countries for mitigating global average temperature rise and adapting to the adverse effects of global climate change. Both sides oppose the use of climate change as a pretext to erect trade barriers or link climate issues to international peace and security threats.

Both sides commend the “Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework” adopted at the 15th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, chaired by China, and are willing to promote harmonious development between humans and nature to contribute to global sustainable development.

Both sides are determined to intensify efforts to control plastic pollution, based on respect for each country’s national conditions and sovereignty, and to work with all parties to develop legally binding documents to address environmental pollution caused by plastic waste, including marine pollution.

Both sides express serious concern about Japan’s discharge of contaminated water from the Fukushima nuclear plant into the ocean, urging Japan to dispose of Fukushima’s nuclear contaminated water in a responsible manner, subject to strict international monitoring, and to respect the requests of relevant countries for independent monitoring.


Russia positively acknowledges China’s objective and just stance on the Ukraine issue, agreeing that the crisis must be resolved on the basis of fully and comprehensively adhering to the principles of the United Nations Charter.

Russia welcomes China’s willingness to play a constructive role in resolving the Ukraine crisis through political and diplomatic means.

Both sides emphasize the need to halt all actions that could prolong the conflict and further escalate tensions, urging to prevent the crisis from spiraling out of control. Dialogue, both sides stress, is a constructive way to resolve the Ukraine crisis.

Both sides believe that to steadily address the Ukraine crisis, it is necessary to eliminate its root causes, adhere to the principle of indivisible security, and take into account the legitimate security interests and concerns of all countries.


Both sides believe that the destinies of all peoples are intertwined, and no country should seek its own security at the expense of sacrificing the security of other countries. Both sides express concern about the real challenges to international and regional security and point out that, given the current geopolitical context, it is necessary to explore the establishment of a sustainable security system in the Eurasian space based on the principles of security equality and indivisibility.

Both sides call on relevant countries and organizations to stop adopting confrontational policies and interfering in the internal affairs of other countries, disrupting existing security architectures, building “small yards” between nations, stirring up regional tensions, and advocating for bloc confrontation.

Both sides oppose the piecemeal and exclusive group architecture being pieced together in Asia and the Pacific region, particularly military alliances against any third party. Both sides point out that the U.S. “Indo-Pacific Strategy” and NATO’s destructive intentions in the Asia-Pacific region have a negative impact on regional peace and stability.

Both sides express serious concern about the consequences of the AUKUS trilateral security partnership in various fields for the strategic stability of the Asia-Pacific region.

Both sides will work together to deepen cooperation with ASEAN and continue to jointly promote the consolidation of ASEAN’s central position in the multilateral framework of the Asia-Pacific region and enhance the effectiveness of ASEAN-led mechanisms such as the East Asia Summit and the ASEAN Regional Forum.

Russia supports China and ASEAN countries in jointly safeguarding peace and stability in the South China Sea. Both sides believe that the South China Sea issue should be resolved through negotiation and consultation by the directly involved parties and firmly oppose interference by external forces in the South China Sea issue. Russia supports China and ASEAN countries in fully and effectively implementing the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea and welcomes the early conclusion of a “Code of Conduct in the South China Sea.”

Both sides oppose U.S. attempts to change the balance of power in Northeast Asia by expanding its military presence and cobbling together military groupings. The United States clings to Cold War thinking and the mode of bloc confrontation, prioritizing “small-group” security over regional peace and stability, posing a threat to the security of all countries in the region. The United States should cease such behavior.

Both sides oppose U.S. and its allies’ deterrent actions in the military field, provoking confrontation with the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and aggravating tensions on the Korean Peninsula that could lead to armed conflict. Both sides urge the United States to take effective measures to ease military tensions and create favorable conditions, abandon intimidation, sanctions, and suppression, and promote negotiations among North Korea and other relevant countries on the principle of mutual respect and consideration of each other’s security concerns. Both sides reaffirm that political and diplomatic means are the only way to resolve all issues on the Korean Peninsula and call on the international community to support constructive joint initiatives by China and Russia.

Both sides advocate for maintaining peace and stability in the Middle East and oppose interference in the internal affairs of regional countries. Both sides support a comprehensive, just, and lasting solution to the Palestinian issue based on recognized international law, including the “two-state solution,” and look forward to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state with East Jerusalem as its capital, living in peace and security with Israel.

Both sides support the sovereignty, independence, unity, and territorial integrity of Syria and Libya, and promote political solutions led by the peoples of these two countries themselves.

Both sides will actively cooperate to consolidate security in the Gulf region, promote mutual trust among regional countries, and achieve sustainable development.

Both sides are willing to strengthen cooperation on Afghan affairs at the bilateral level and in multilateral mechanisms, promote Afghanistan’s independence, neutrality, unity, and peace, protect it from terrorism and drugs, and live in harmony with all neighboring countries. Both sides attach great importance to and support the positive and constructive role played by regional platforms such as the Meeting of Foreign Ministers of Afghanistan’s Neighboring Countries, the “Moscow Format” consultations on Afghanistan, the Quadrilateral Mechanism of China, Russia, Pakistan, and Iran, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization in political settlement of the Afghan issue.

Both sides emphasize that the United States and NATO, as responsible parties for the aggressive occupation of Afghanistan for 20 years, should not attempt to deploy military facilities in Afghanistan and its surrounding areas again, but should bear the primary responsibility for the current economic and livelihood difficulties in Afghanistan, assume the main expenses for the reconstruction of Afghanistan, and take all necessary measures to unfreeze Afghanistan’s national assets.

Both sides believe that the Collective Security Treaty Organization and the Commonwealth of Independent States play an important role in maintaining regional stability, combating international terrorism, illegal drug trafficking, and other transboundary threats. Both sides emphasize that China and the Collective Security Treaty Organization have cooperation potential in maintaining peace and security in the Euro-Asian region and jointly addressing external challenges.

To develop friendly, stable, and prosperous relations with neighboring countries, both sides will continue to carry out mutually beneficial cooperation with countries in Central Asia, strengthen cooperation within international organizations and multilateral mechanisms such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia, and the United Nations.

Both sides unanimously believe that peace, stability, and true independence are the basis for the development and prosperity of the African continent. Both sides call for the maintenance of a good and healthy atmosphere of international cooperation with Africa, and to this end, both sides will continue to strengthen communication and cooperation on African affairs, making contributions to supporting African countries in solving African problems in an African way.

Both sides will continue to strengthen strategic cooperation on Latin American and Caribbean affairs. Both sides hope to enhance cooperation in various fields with relevant countries and mechanisms in Latin America and the Caribbean, including but not limited to regional organizations such as the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Pacific Alliance (AP), the Andean Community (CAN), the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA), the Central American Integration System (SICA), the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), as well as international organizations such as the United Nations, the G20, and BRICS.

Both sides advocate for the Arctic to continue to be a place for peaceful, stable, constructive dialogue, and mutually beneficial cooperation, and not to create military-political tensions in the region.

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