The NATO proclamation—promoted at its annual summit this week—that a cyber attack could trigger Article 5 of the NATO treaty heightens the risk of military confrontation with Russia or China.
So does a new stipulation—announced at the summit—that space attacks could trigger Article 5. Russia has already been accused of testing space-based anti-satellite weapons, which could be adopted as a justification now for war.
Article 5 says that the NATO alliance regards an attack on one of its members as an attack on all of them. That is supposed to come into play only in case of an armed attack, since that is the only kind of attack under the UN Charter that warrants responsive use of force.
If one expands the concept of armed attack in violation of the UN Charter, one opens a broader path to the use of force.
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